Transmission of monkeypox virus occurs when a person comes into contact with the virus from an animal, a human being, or materials contaminated with the virus. The virus enters the body through injured skin (even if it is not visible), airways, or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth). Animal-to-human transmission can occur through bite or scratch, preparation of bushmeat, direct contact with bodily fluids or injured material, or indirect contact with injured material, for example, through contaminated bedding. It is believed that person-to-person transmission occurs mainly through large respiratory droplets.
Respiratory droplets are usually unable to travel more than a few feet, so prolonged face-to-face contact is required. Other methods of person-to-person transmission include direct contact with bodily fluids or the material of the lesion, and indirect contact with the material of the lesion, for example, through contaminated clothing or bedding. Monkeypox usually causes fever, chills, rash, and lesions on the face or genitals. It can be transmitted through close contact with an infected person or through clothing or sheets, but sexual transmission has not yet been documented.
Most people recover from the disease in several weeks without needing hospitalization. Vaccines against smallpox, a related disease, are also effective in preventing monkeypox and some antiviral drugs are being developed. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expressed concern Tuesday over an unusual outbreak of monkeypox in the UK, suggesting that there appears to be at least some undetected transmission of the virus there and warning of the possibility of the outbreak spreading beyond the United Kingdom. Seven confirmed cases and one probable case of monkeypox have been discovered in the United Kingdom,.
Since the beginning of May, an unusually large number, given that cases of monkeypox in humans are rare and are especially rare outside of West and Central Africa. While one of the cases had recently traveled to Nigeria, where monkeypox is endemic, the others appear to have contracted the virus in the United Kingdom,. None of the nationally infected people have any known connection with the traveler and the timing of the onset of the cases suggests that he was not the source of those infections. Complicating the situation and raising concern is the fact that the other cases involve two distinct groups that have no discernible links to each other.
Two of the confirmed cases and the only probable case are a family unit, Maria Van Kerkhove, an expert at the World Health Organization, said at a news conference on Tuesday. The other four confirmed cases, most recently revealed, were identified by the United Kingdom,. Health Security Agency such as gay, bisexual or other men who have sex with men three from London and a quarter from Newcastle, nearly 300 miles north. The four were probably infected in London, the agency said.
It is not known how any of these people contracted the virus. Transmission is thought to occur mainly through droplets mixed with viruses, but direct contact with injuries or bodily fluids of an infected person, or indirect contact through contaminated clothing or bedding, may also result in transmission. The fact that there are two apparently disconnected groups suggests that there may be more than one transmission chain in the country, each of which could contain additional cases that have not yet been detected. Van Kerkhove, who leads the emerging diseases and zoonoses unit of the WHO Health Emergencies Program, said that sequencing of the virus is underway in the UK.
Try to determine if cases are genetically related. There is no suggestion that monkeypox is spreading to large numbers of people in the United Kingdom,. Even so, evidence that there are likely to be some undetected cases is fueling concerns about the amount of transmission that may be there and whether the virus has traveled further. Although human cases of monkeypox outside Africa are rare, there has been a surge in recent years exported to the United States (two in 202, the United Kingdom,.
The four most recent cases were infected with the West African monkeypox clade, which causes a milder disease than the Central African clade, UKHSA said. In Africa, monkeypox has been fatal in approximately 1 in 10 cases, and severe illness and death are more likely among children. Due to the discovery of cases among persons who are homosexual, bisexual or other men who have sex with men, public health authorities in the United Kingdom,. Sexual health clinics have been alerted to watch out for people with unexplained rashes.
McQuiston said CDC is considering sending a health alert to sexually transmitted infection medical professions and clinics in this country. Van Kerkhove said WHO has contacted European countries through its European office based in Copenhagen to raise awareness of the risk of finding cases of monkeypox. Communications around the outbreak must be crafted with care, McQuiston said. Public Health Researchers in the United Kingdom, United Kingdom.
They're working to track who confirmed cases were in contact with before they got sick, to try to find the source of their infections. But they also seek to identify contacts of those infected to see if they have transmitted the virus to others. The outbreak is a reminder of the need to pay more attention to monkeypox, whose disease dynamics are not well understood, said Ibrahima Socé Fall, WHO Deputy Director-General for Emergency Response. Helen covers topics broadly related to infectious diseases, including outbreaks, vaccine preparedness, research and development.
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