Historically, cases outside of Africa have been less common and are usually related to international travel or imported animals. Previous cases have been reported in Israel, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, monkeypox spreads when someone comes into close contact with another person, animal or material infected with the virus. Transmission of monkeypox virus occurs when a person comes into contact with the virus from an animal, a human being, or materials contaminated with the virus. The virus enters the body through injured skin (even if it is not visible), airways, or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth).
Animal-to-human transmission can occur through biting or scratching, preparation of bushmeat, direct contact with bodily fluids or injured material, or indirect contact with injured material, for example, through contaminated bedding. It is believed that person-to-person transmission occurs mainly through large respiratory droplets. Respiratory droplets are usually unable to travel more than a few feet, so prolonged face-to-face contact is required. Other methods of person-to-person transmission include direct contact with bodily fluids or injury material, and indirect contact with injury material, such as through contaminated clothing or bedding.
Monkeypox usually causes fever, chills, rash, and lesions on the face or genitals. It can be transmitted through close contact with an infected person or through clothing or sheets, but sexual transmission has not yet been documented. Most people recover from the disease in several weeks without needing hospitalization. Vaccines against smallpox, a related disease, are also effective in preventing monkeypox and some antiviral drugs are being developed.